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Impak restoran makanan segera dekat sekolah

Kanak-kanak atau remaja yang bersekolah dalam lingkungan kurang satu kilometer dari restoran makanan segera mempunyai kebarangkalian untuk gemuk berbanding dengan mereka yang bersekolah jauh dari premis berkenaan.

Laporan hasil kajian terbaru oleh Dr. Brennan Davis dan Christopher Carpenter yang disiarkan di Jurnal Kesihatan Awam Amerika Syarikat (AS) baru-baru ini, mungkin perlu diberi perhatian terutama pada ibu bapa yang mempunyai anak bermasalah berat badan berlebihan.

Kajian tersebut mendapati bahawa remaja yang sekolah mereka hampir dengan restoran makanan segera, banyak mengambil minuman bikarbonat serta amat kurang memakan buah dan sayur.

“Secara keseluruhannya, kami mencapai keseragaman idea bahawa restoran makanan segera yang dibina berdekatan sekolah memberikan kesan kepada tabiat pemakanan pelajar, masalah berat badan berlebihan dan obesiti,” jelas Dr. Davis, yang merupakan seorang pensyarah di Azusa Pacific University, di Azusa, California.

Beberapa kajian terdahulu hanya melihat banyak restoran makanan segera ‘berkumpul’ pada jarak yang sangat dekat dengan sekolah, tetapi kajian kali ini lebih kepada untuk melihat sama ada terdapat kaitan antara kehadiran restoran ini dengan tabiat pemakanan.

Davis dan Carpenter, yang juga pensyarah di University of California, melakukan kajian ke atas 500,000 pelajar menerusi kaji selidik yang dinamakan Kaji Selidik Kesihatan Kanak-Kanak California.

Kaji selidik tersebut telah bermula dari tahun 2002 hinggalah 2005 yang berobjektif untuk menentukan kaitan perubahan tabiat pemakanan dan kegemukan dengan restoran makanan segera.

Secara rambang, sebanyak 28 peratus peserta kaji selidik mengalami masalah kegemukan, manakala 12 peratus lagi dikategorikan sebagai obesiti.

Daripada jumlah itu, lebih 55 peratus bersekolah di sekolah dalam lingkungan setengah kilometer dari restoran makanan segera.

Menurut pasangan penyelidik itu lagi, mereka yang bersekolah jauh dari restoran makanan segera mempunyai berat badan yang lebih ideal berbanding mereka yang bersekolah berhampiran dengan restoran makanan segera.

Bukan setakat melakukan pemantauan kepada 500,000 sahaja, malah kesan yang sama turut didapati pada pelajar lain yang bersekolah hampir dengan restoran makanan segera.

Dalam kajian yang sama turut melaporkan, remaja yang bersekolah dekat dengan restoran makanan segera amat kurang memakan makanan berkhasiat seperti sayur, buah ataupun meminum jus sebelum ke sekolah.

Malah, pelajar ini mengakui mereka gemar mengambil minuman seperti soda dan air bergas setiap hari.

Davis dan Carpenter juga berpendapat, polisi patut dibuat bagi memastikan para remaja memilih makanan yang lebih sihat.

“Polisi untuk membantu para remaja memilih makanan yang lebih sihat boleh bermula dengan memberikan mereka corak pemakanan alternatif yang lebih sihat.

“Selain itu, pendekatan lebih drastik mungkin boleh diambil kira dengan cara mengurangkan bilangan restoran makanan segera berhampiran sekolah.

“Tidak kiralah cadangan mana yang dipilih oleh penggubal polisi, yang pasti ia mesti menemukan matlamatnya iaitu untuk membolehkan pelajar menikmati makanan yang lebih sihat,” tambah mereka.

Biarpun kajian yang sama belum dilakukan di Malaysia, kecenderungan tersebut sudah mula ketara apabila semakin banyak restoran-restoran makanan segera di bina berhampiran kawasan-kawasan perumahan.

Matlamat pengusaha restoran mungkin bagi memudahkan orang ramai mengunjunginya, namun secara tidak disedari ia turut menggalakkan tabiat pemakanan tidak sihat khususnya untuk kanak-kanak.

Dalam hal ini, kebijaksanaan ibu bapa dituntut bagi memastikan anak-anak membesar dengan corak pemakanan menyihatkan yang dapat mengelak kepada masalah kegemukan.

Oleh NOOR FAZRINA KAMAL



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